History of Computer Aided Manufacturing

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is one of the software automation processes that directly convert the product drawing or the object into the code design that enables the machine to manufacture the product. It is used in various machines like lathes and milling machines for the product manufacturing purposes. It allows the computer work instructions to communicate directly to the manufacturing machines.

The mechanism of CAM developed from the Computer Numerical Machines (CNC) in the early 1950s. These systems were directed by a set of coded instructions in a punched paper tape. The proposal to develop the first numerically controlled machine was commissioned to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from the US Air Force in the year 1949. The entire proposed idea of developing this machine was demonstrated in the year 1952.

The motivation factor in developing these kinds of numerically automated machines involves the expensive costs in manufacturing the complex curved geometries in 2D or 3D constraints mechanically. The development of these machines considers the factors like easier programming in CAM and easy storage of programs. A program can be changed easily and avoid manual errors. Numerically controlled machines are safer to operate, and the complex geometry comes at a reasonable price.

James T. Parsons proposed the concept of the numerical control operations during the year of 1948. In 1950, the MIT servo mechanism lab developed the Numerical Control (NC) milling project. The remaining program parts were released in the later period of 1952 along with the first successful demo version. After 1955, major companies in the industry developed their own machine designs.

IBMs Automatic Tool Changer in the year 1955, G & Ls first production of the skin-miller in the year 1957, and the machining center developed by K & T have all been considered to be major developments to promote the technology with more benefits. CAD drafting and the sculptured surfaces were developed in the year 1965; 7,700 NCs were also installed during the same year.

During the year 1967, the concept of developing the CNC machine was proposed. The existence and the major development of the CAD/CAM machines evolved during the year 1972. 3D CAM/CAD systems were introduced in 1976. Expert CAM/CAD systems were developed in the year 1989. The major development of the CAM systems provides you with easier manufacturing of objects with high efficiency.

Programming CNC Machines With G-Codes

Ever since the industrial revolution started, the demand to create precise instruments and products is an important factor in large scale manufacturing. Belts, screws, Drills and all movable parts needed to create other products in the assembly line must all be exact and compatible, thus extra care must be taken in order to ensure that all moving parts match perfectly. Computer Numerical Controlled programming has become an extremely important part of this process.

Computer Numerical Controlled Machines are useless without any programming. CNC’s rely on pure hard codes in order to execute commands that the Machine Operator wants to do, therefore not only is it needed to learn the mechanics of the whole Computer Numerical Controlled Machine but it is also at the utmost importance that the Machine operator knows how to communicate with the machine, and that is by using G-codes.

Preparatory code/ functions or much commonly called as G-codes are functions in the Computer Numerical Control programming language. The G-codes job is to manage the position of the tool as well as control the step by step commands during the actual work. Basically the G-codes are the most important part of the Computer Numerical Control Programming algorithm.

There are other codes involved in the programming of CNC’s such as M-codes that manages the machine, T-codes for managing the tools, and F-codes for the tool feed and tool speed controls. All of these codes are created in a Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software.

G codes as well as the others use the RS-274D as the recommended standard for the Computer Numerical Controlled Machines. This standard was developed by the Electronic Industry association during the 1960’s. These standards provide a basis for the creation of Computer Numerical Controlled Programs.

First designs of these standards came from punched paper tapes as the medium standard for data interchange, but now ASCII character bit patterns are the standard for the representation.

G-Codes

Lets discuss the g-codes further, as what I have said earlier G- codes constitute only a part of the Computer Numerical Control Program, in the whole programming algorithm, they are denoted by the letter G, Basically it is a code telling the machine what kinds of actions to perform in a step by step basis, examples of these actions would be rapid move, controlled feed moves that would bore holes, a work piece cut routed to a specific dimension, change a pallet, and set a tool information such as offset.

After creating each part of the codes, the algorithm is compiled in the Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. The CAM software basically use translators called post processors to output the code optimized for a certain machine type. Often times, post-processors are often used to allow users to enable further customization.

G-codes can also be used to create outputs for Computer Aided Design systems used to design printed circuit boards (PCB). Any software must be customized for each type of machine tool that it will be used to program. Some G-codes are written by hand for volume production jobs.

Some Computer Numerical Controlled machines use conversational programming. Conversational programming is an easier way to program CNC machines because it is more “user friendly” because it uses a wizard like program that hides the G-codes into plain view. Some Popular examples of this kind of CNC machines are the Southwestern Industries’ Proto TRAK, Mazak’s Mazatrol, and Mori Seiki’s CAPS conversational software.

Conclusion

With these kinds of further sophistication in programming Computer Numerical Controlled Machines, it is expected in the future that programming would be much easier for its machine operators.

History of Computer Aided Manufacturing

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is one of the software automation processes that directly convert the product drawing or the object into the code design that enables the machine to manufacture the product. It is used in various machines like lathes and milling machines for the product manufacturing purposes. It allows the computer work instructions to communicate directly to the manufacturing machines.

The mechanism of CAM developed from the Computer Numerical Machines (CNC) in the early 1950s. These systems were directed by a set of coded instructions in a punched paper tape. The proposal to develop the first numerically controlled machine was commissioned to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from the US Air Force in the year 1949. The entire proposed idea of developing this machine was demonstrated in the year 1952.

The motivation factor in developing these kinds of numerically automated machines involves the expensive costs in manufacturing the complex curved geometries in 2D or 3D constraints mechanically. The development of these machines considers the factors like easier programming in CAM and easy storage of programs. A program can be changed easily and avoid manual errors. Numerically controlled machines are safer to operate, and the complex geometry comes at a reasonable price.

James T. Parsons proposed the concept of the numerical control operations during the year of 1948. In 1950, the MIT servo mechanism lab developed the Numerical Control (NC) milling project. The remaining program parts were released in the later period of 1952 along with the first successful demo version. After 1955, major companies in the industry developed their own machine designs.

IBMs Automatic Tool Changer in the year 1955, G & Ls first production of the skin-miller in the year 1957, and the machining center developed by K & T have all been considered to be major developments to promote the technology with more benefits. CAD drafting and the sculptured surfaces were developed in the year 1965; 7,700 NCs were also installed during the same year.

During the year 1967, the concept of developing the CNC machine was proposed. The existence and the major development of the CAD/CAM machines evolved during the year 1972. 3D CAM/CAD systems were introduced in 1976. Expert CAM/CAD systems were developed in the year 1989. The major development of the CAM systems provides you with easier manufacturing of objects with high efficiency.